Monday, March 23, 2020

The Boston Strangler Serial Killer Essay Example For Students

The Boston Strangler Serial Killer Essay Word Count: 765 The Boston Strangler was probably the most notorious criminal that Boston, Massachusetts has ever known. But who was the Boston Strangler? Was he Albert DeSalvo, the person who confessed and went to jail for these crimes? Is he someone that took his secret to the grave and let an innocent man take the blame for his crime? Or is he still walking the streets of Boston, or even the streets of another city? We may never know for sure because based on all the evidence Ive read, in my opinion Albert DeSalvo was not the famed Boston Strangler. The Boston Strangler wreaked havoc on the city from June 1962 until January 1964. He claimed the lives of thirteen women, ages ranging from 85 years old to 19 years old. The first victim had been raped and her bathrobe tie wrapped around her neck in a bow in June 1964. We will write a custom essay on The Boston Strangler Serial Killer specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now The next victim, was 85 year old Mary Mullen, she was not technically killed by the strangler, but rather a fatal heart attack when confronted by him. On June 30th, 1962, Helen Blake met death at the hands of the strangler. Next was 68 year old Nina Nichols. The fifth victim was 75 year old Ida Irga. On August 20th, 1962 Jane Sullivan had been raped and strangled with her nylons. The only black woman to be killed by the hands of the Boston Strangler was Sophie Clark. On December 30th, 1962, 23 year old Patricia Bissette was killed. Then 68 year old Mary Brown met her fate. In August 1963, Beverly Samans met the strangler, she was stabbed instead of strangled and was not raped, but the police still thought it was the stranglers work. The next victim was Evelyn Corbin . On November 11th 1963, Joann Graff was found raped and strangled in her apartment. But the Boston Strangler was getting sloppy, because he allowed himself to be seen. A man that lived upstairs from Joann reported to police a man had knocked on the door across the hall from his and inquired about Ms. Graff, when he told the man where she lived he quickly left, but not without being seen. The final murder occurred on January 4th 1964. The victim was Mary Sullivan. She was the youngest of the stranglers victims. Susan Kelly in The Boston Stranglers: The Public Conviction of Albert DeSalvo and the True Story of Eleven Shocking Murders makes a persuasive argument for DeSalvo being innocent of the strangling murders. She cites a number of reasons why she and others still believed that DeSalvo was innocent. One of the strongest of these reasons is that there was ;not one shred of physical evidence that connected him to any of the murders.; Nor could any eyewitness place him at or even near any of the crime scenes. Albert had a relatively memorable face, particularly because of his prominent, beak-like nose. The Strangler (or Stranglers, since some experts believe that it had to be at least two different murderers and possibly more) was seen by a number of eyewitnesses. One was Kenneth Rowe, the engineering student who lived on the floor above Joann Graffs apartment. He spoke to the stranger who was looking for her apartment just before she was killed. When Rowe was shown a photo of Albert DeSalvo, he did not recognize him as the man looking for Joann. Another point to make is serial killers tend to follow a pattern. The Boston strangler did not. He chose woman of all different ages and backgrounds, which leads me to believe that it was more than one person committing these crimes. No one can know for sure why DeSalvo would confess to crimes he didnt commit, but one reason could be money. .u112d61e7fe825fcab377ce77a31358dc , .u112d61e7fe825fcab377ce77a31358dc .postImageUrl , .u112d61e7fe825fcab377ce77a31358dc .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u112d61e7fe825fcab377ce77a31358dc , .u112d61e7fe825fcab377ce77a31358dc:hover , .u112d61e7fe825fcab377ce77a31358dc:visited , .u112d61e7fe825fcab377ce77a31358dc:active { border:0!important; } .u112d61e7fe825fcab377ce77a31358dc .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u112d61e7fe825fcab377ce77a31358dc { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u112d61e7fe825fcab377ce77a31358dc:active , .u112d61e7fe825fcab377ce77a31358dc:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u112d61e7fe825fcab377ce77a31358dc .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u112d61e7fe825fcab377ce77a31358dc .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u112d61e7fe825fcab377ce77a31358dc .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u112d61e7fe825fcab377ce77a31358dc .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u112d61e7fe825fcab377ce77a31358dc:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u112d61e7fe825fcab377ce77a31358dc .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u112d61e7fe825fcab377ce77a31358dc .u112d61e7fe825fcab377ce77a31358dc-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u112d61e7fe825fcab377ce77a31358dc:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: The Greenhouse Effect Essay Paper When Albert was conferring with his lawyer, he asked him if confessing could bring money to his family by ways of books and interviews. His attorney said probably and Albert then quickly confessed. On the night before DeSalvo was killed by another inmate in prison, he called his attorney and told him he had something important to tell him and to come see him the next day. Unfortunately we will never know what Albert had to say, because he was stabbed through the heart and killed, but I think he wanted to tell his lawyer who the Boston Strangler really was. Works consulted: 1. Bailey, F. Lee. The Defense Never Rests New York: Mass Market Paperbacks, 1995. 2. Kelly, Susan. The Boston Stranglers; The Wrongful Conviction of Albert DeSalvo and the True Story of Eleven Shocking Murders. Los Angeles: Carol Publishing Group. 1995 3.Frank,Gerold. The Boston Strangler. Boston: New American . The Boston Strangler Serial Killer Essay Example For Students The Boston Strangler Serial Killer Essay The Boston Strangler was probably the most notorious criminal that Boston, Massachusetts has ever known. But who was the Boston Strangler? Was he Albert DeSalvo, the person who confessed and went to jail for these crimes? Is he someone that took his secret to the grave and let an innocent man take the blame for his crime? Or is he still walking the streets of Boston, or even the streets of another city? We may never know for sure because based on all the evidence Ive read, in my opinion Albert DeSalvo was not the famed Boston Strangler. The Boston Strangler wreaked havoc on the city from June 1962 until January 1964. He claimed the lives of thirteen women, ages ranging from 85 years old to 19 years old. The first victim had been raped and her bathrobe tie wrapped around her neck in a bow in June 1964. We will write a custom essay on The Boston Strangler Serial Killer specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now The next victim, was 85 year old Mary Mullen, she was not technically killed by the strangler, but rather a fatal heart attack when confronted by him. On June 30th, 1962, Helen Blake met death at the hands of the strangler. Next was 68 year old Nina Nichols. The fifth victim was 75 year old Ida Irga. On August 20th, 1962 Jane Sullivan had been raped and strangled with her nylons. The only black woman to be killed by the hands of the Boston Strangler was Sophie Clark. On December 30th, 1962, 23 year old Patricia Bissette was killed. Then 68 year old Mary Brown met her fate. In August 1963, Beverly Samans met the strangler, she was stabbed instead of strangled and was not raped, but the police still thought it was the stranglers work. The next victim was Evelyn Corbin . On November 11th 1963, Joann Graff was found raped and strangled in her apartment. But the Boston Strangler was getting sloppy, because he allowed himself to be seen. A man that lived upstairs from Joann reported to police a man had knocked on the door across the hall from his and inquired about Ms. Graff, when he told the man where she lived he quickly left, but not without being seen. The final murder occurred on January 4th 1964. The victim was Mary Sullivan. She was the youngest of the stranglers victims. Susan Kelly in The Boston Stranglers: The Public Conviction of Albert DeSalvo and the True Story of Eleven Shocking Murders makes a persuasive argument for DeSalvo being innocent of the strangling murders. She cites a number of reasons why she and others still believed that DeSalvo was innocent. One of the strongest of these reasons is that there was ;not one shred of physical evidence that connected him to any of the murders.; Nor could any eyewitness place him at or even near any of the crime scenes. Albert had a relatively memorable face, particularly because of his prominent, beak-like nose. The Strangler (or Stranglers, since some experts believe that it had to be at least two different murderers and possibly more) was seen by a number of eyewitnesses. One was Kenneth Rowe, the engineering student who lived on the floor above Joann Graffs apartment. He spoke to the stranger who was looking for her apartment just before she was killed. When Rowe was shown a photo of Albert DeSalvo, he did not recognize him as the man looking for Joann. Another point to make is serial killers tend to follow a pattern. The Boston strangler did not. He chose woman of all different ages and backgrounds, which leads me to believe that it was more than one person committing these crimes. No one can know for sure why DeSalvo would confess to crimes he didnt commit, but one reason could be money. .uf847be50d0c8bcc8fa865ad5f556cd8b , .uf847be50d0c8bcc8fa865ad5f556cd8b .postImageUrl , .uf847be50d0c8bcc8fa865ad5f556cd8b .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .uf847be50d0c8bcc8fa865ad5f556cd8b , .uf847be50d0c8bcc8fa865ad5f556cd8b:hover , .uf847be50d0c8bcc8fa865ad5f556cd8b:visited , .uf847be50d0c8bcc8fa865ad5f556cd8b:active { border:0!important; } .uf847be50d0c8bcc8fa865ad5f556cd8b .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .uf847be50d0c8bcc8fa865ad5f556cd8b { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .uf847be50d0c8bcc8fa865ad5f556cd8b:active , .uf847be50d0c8bcc8fa865ad5f556cd8b:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .uf847be50d0c8bcc8fa865ad5f556cd8b .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .uf847be50d0c8bcc8fa865ad5f556cd8b .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .uf847be50d0c8bcc8fa865ad5f556cd8b .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .uf847be50d0c8bcc8fa865ad5f556cd8b .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .uf847be50d0c8bcc8fa865ad5f556cd8b:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .uf847be50d0c8bcc8fa865ad5f556cd8b .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .uf847be50d0c8bcc8fa865ad5f556cd8b .uf847be50d0c8bcc8fa865ad5f556cd8b-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .uf847be50d0c8bcc8fa865ad5f556cd8b:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: With Its Long Slender Body The Snakes Probably The Funniest Shaped C Essay When Albert was conferring with his lawyer, he asked him if confessing could bring money to his family by ways of books and interviews. His attorney said probably and Albert then quickly confessed. On the night before DeSalvo was killed by another inmate in prison, he called his attorney and told him he had something important to tell him and to come see him the next day. Unfortunately we will never know what Albert had to say, because he was stabbed through the heart and killed, but I think he wanted to tell his lawyer who the Boston Strangler really was. Works consulted: 1. Bailey, F. Lee. The Defense Never Rests New York: Mass Market Paperbacks, 1995. 2. Kelly, Susan. The Boston Stranglers; The Wrongful Conviction of Albert DeSalvo and the True Story of Eleven Shocking Murders. Los Angeles: Carol Publishing Group. 1995 3.Frank,Gerold. The Boston . The Boston Strangler Serial Killer Essay Example For Students The Boston Strangler Serial Killer Essay The Boston Strangler was probably the most notorious criminal that Boston, Massachusetts has ever known. But who was the Boston Strangler? Was he Albert DeSalvo, the person who confessed and went to jail for these crimes? Is he someone that took his secret to the grave and let an innocent man take the blame for his crime? Or is he still walking the streets of Boston, or even the streets of another city? We may never know for sure because based on all the evidence Ive read, in my opinion Albert DeSalvo was not the famed Boston Strangler. The Boston Strangler wreaked havoc on the city from June 1962 until January 1964. He claimed the lives of thirteen women, ages ranging from 85 years old to 19 years old. The first victim had been raped and her bathrobe tie wrapped around her neck in a bow in June 1964. We will write a custom essay on The Boston Strangler Serial Killer specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now The next victim, was 85 year old Mary Mullen, she was not technically killed by the strangler, but rather a fatal heart attack when confronted by him. On June 30th, 1962, Helen Blake met death at the hands of the strangler. Next was 68 year old Nina Nichols. The fifth victim was 75 year old Ida Irga. On August 20th, 1962 Jane Sullivan had been raped and strangled with her nylons. The only black woman to be killed by the hands of the Boston Strangler was Sophie Clark. On December 30th, 1962, 23 year old Patricia Bissette was killed. Then 68 year old Mary Brown met her fate. In August 1963, Beverly Samans met the strangler, she was stabbed instead of strangled and was not raped, but the police still thought it was the stranglers work. The next victim was Evelyn Corbin . On November 11th 1963, Joann Graff was found raped and strangled in her apartment. But the Boston Strangler was getting sloppy, because he allowed himself to be seen. A man that lived upstairs from Joann reported to police a man had knocked on the door across the hall from his and inquired about Ms. Graff, when he told the man where she lived he quickly left, but not without being seen. The final murder occurred on January 4th 1964. The victim was Mary Sullivan. She was the youngest of the stranglers victims. Susan Kelly in The Boston Stranglers: The Public Conviction of Albert DeSalvo and the True Story of Eleven Shocking Murders makes a persuasive argument for DeSalvo being innocent of the strangling murders. She cites a number of reasons why she and others still believed that DeSalvo was innocent. One of the strongest of these reasons is that there was ;not one shred of physical evidence that connected him to any of the murders.; Nor could any eyewitness place him at or even near any of the crime scenes. Albert had a relatively memorable face, particularly because of his prominent, beak-like nose. The Strangler (or Stranglers, since some experts believe that it had to be at least two different murderers and possibly more) was seen by a number of eyewitnesses. One was Kenneth Rowe, the engineering student who lived on the floor above Joann Graffs apartment. He spoke to the stranger who was looking for her apartment just before she was killed. When Rowe was shown a photo of Albert DeSalvo, he did not recognize him as the man looking for Joann. Another point to make is serial killers tend to follow a pattern. The Boston strangler did not. He chose woman of all different ages and backgrounds, which leads me to believe that it was more than one person committing these crimes. No one can know for sure why DeSalvo would confess to crimes he didnt commit, but one reason could be money. .u12a7937c453fd1e214b0cb0dae623f04 , .u12a7937c453fd1e214b0cb0dae623f04 .postImageUrl , .u12a7937c453fd1e214b0cb0dae623f04 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u12a7937c453fd1e214b0cb0dae623f04 , .u12a7937c453fd1e214b0cb0dae623f04:hover , .u12a7937c453fd1e214b0cb0dae623f04:visited , .u12a7937c453fd1e214b0cb0dae623f04:active { border:0!important; } .u12a7937c453fd1e214b0cb0dae623f04 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u12a7937c453fd1e214b0cb0dae623f04 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u12a7937c453fd1e214b0cb0dae623f04:active , .u12a7937c453fd1e214b0cb0dae623f04:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u12a7937c453fd1e214b0cb0dae623f04 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u12a7937c453fd1e214b0cb0dae623f04 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u12a7937c453fd1e214b0cb0dae623f04 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u12a7937c453fd1e214b0cb0dae623f04 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u12a7937c453fd1e214b0cb0dae623f04:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u12a7937c453fd1e214b0cb0dae623f04 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u12a7937c453fd1e214b0cb0dae623f04 .u12a7937c453fd1e214b0cb0dae623f04-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u12a7937c453fd1e214b0cb0dae623f04:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: An Online Bachelor's Degree: Lakeland College Essay When Albert was conferring with his lawyer, he asked him if confessing could bring money to his family by ways of books and interviews. His attorney said probably and Albert then quickly confessed. On the night before DeSalvo was killed by another inmate in prison, he called his attorney and told him he had something important to tell him and to come see him the next day. Unfortunately we will never know what Albert had to say, because he was stabbed through the heart and killed, but I think he wanted to tell his lawyer who the Boston Strangler really was. Works consulted: 1. Bailey, F. Lee. The Defense Never Rests New York: Mass Market Paperbacks, 1995. 2. Kelly, Susan. The Boston Stranglers; The Wrongful Conviction of Albert DeSalvo and the True Story of Eleven Shocking Murders. Los Angeles: Carol Publishing Group. 1995 3.Frank,Gerold. The Boston .

Friday, March 6, 2020

Phases of the moon Essay Essay Example

Phases of the moon Essay Essay Example Phases of the moon Essay Essay Phases of the moon Essay Essay During dark clip. the Moon is the clearest heavenly object that could be seen any topographic point on Earth. The Moon is considered as the closest heavenly thing on Earth and is the lone natural orbiter to the Earth ( Freudenrich. 2008 ) . As people noticed. the Moon nowadayss altering forms in the dark sky. There are cases when 1 could see a full disc form. other times it peaks a cabal of its face and sometimes it vanishes for a few yearss. These alterations in the bright side of the Moon are identified as the moon’s stages. Such happening in the Moon is non random at all instead the alterations happen in a monthly footing and occurs in a predictable mode ( Freudenrich. 2008 ) . The Moons stages are non the consequence of the earth’s shadow as many believe. The shadow of the Earth may do occultations but the happening of the Moons phases is a different instance. Phases of the Moon are dependent on its place in the alliance together with the Earth and Sun therefore the lighted portion in the moon’s face is caused by the contemplation of the visible radiation from the Sun ( Barrow. 2008. 1 ) . During the 29 twenty-four hours travel of the Moon around its orbit. its place undergoes day-to-day alterations. There are times when the Moon is positioned between the Earth and the Sun. other times it is behind the Earth this is why people see the bright parts of the moon’s surface in different angles ( Freudenrich. 2008 ) . The eight stages of the Moon undergoes a rhythm which is proceeded by the new Moon. New Moon besides known as the dark Moon could be seen whenever the Sun and the Moon are likewise positioned on the same side of the Earth. The new Moon is basically non seeable because it is situated in between the Sun and the Earth therefore the portion which is lighted faces straight to the Sun while the other portion which is lost in the sun’s blaze is confronting the Earth ( Barrow. 2008. 1 ) . The 2nd stage of the Moon is identified as the waxing crescent. This appears during the 2nd or 3rd twenty-four hours. During this stage merely a small portion of the Moon is demoing up. It is characterized with a thin lunar splinter which is evident proceedingss after the sundown. Such stage is termed as waxing because every dark a portion of the Moon becomes more seeable in a longer clip ( The stages of our Moon: What can you see this evening. 2008 ) . By the clip the waxing crescent Moon grows in a half full. it has so reached the 3rd stage which is known as the first one-fourth. During this stage. half of the Moon is already seeable. However. its visibleness last during the first half of the eventide and finally goes down. It is besides of import to observe that the first one-fourth Moon reflect the sun’s visible radiation on the right manus side ( The stages of our Moon: What can you see this evening. 2008 ) . Waxing Gibbous Moon is a stage when most portion of the Moon is already seeable. At this point. the Moon is clearly seeable to any of its perceivers and merely a small splinter is non illuminated. The crookback Moon could be seen clearly even before the sundown and corsets in the dark sky until three in the forenoon ( Barrow. 2008. 1 ) . The full face of the Moon is evident during the 5th stage which is the full Moon. This stage takes topographic point whenever the Earth is positioned between the Moon and the Earth. Full Moon is the lone stage where the Moon is reflecting all throughout the dark. A full Moon will lift during the beginning of the dark and will finally put as forenoon stairss in ( Barrow. 2008. 1 ) . Just like the waxing crookback. the declining crookback which is the 6th stage of the Moon. shows all but a small portion of the Moon. However. in contrast with the waxing crookback where perceivers are seeing much of the heavenly body’s illuminated portion. the declining crookback is an indicant of seeing less of the Moon in the approaching darks. This is why it was coined as â€Å"waning† crookback ( The stages of our Moon: What can you see this evening. 2008 ) . Second to the last of the moon’s stage is the last one-fourth. Much like the first one-fourth. people see a half full of the moon’s illuminated face nevertheless ; the reflected visible radiation is set on the left manus corner of the Moon reverse to the first one-fourth stage which is reflected in the right manus side ( Barrow. 2008. 1 ) . Finally the waning crescent marks the concluding rhythm of the moon’s stage. During this period people would observer that merely small of the Moons face is seeable. By the following darks merely a smaller portion of the Moon can be seen in a lesser period. From there a new rhythm will so continue ( The stages of our Moon: What can you see this evening. 2008 ) . Obviously the moon’s stages are dependent upon the moon’s run alonging place in conformity to the Sun and Earth. It is besides notable that the sequence of the stages starts with the moon’s light light from right to left until it extends to the full Moon stage. Right after the said stage the lighted country of the Moon would withdraw from right to left until it reaches the new Moon stage which would tag another rhythm. The stages of the Moon are non complicated as it may look. By larning how. when and why it occurs enables an single to cognize that such event is non random but a predictable event.

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Managing change Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Managing change - Essay Example In addition, by referring to the ever-increasing challenges in modern local and global market, organisation managers and leadership ought to be mindful of various intervention approaches and mechanism that can effectively facilitate successful and productive implementation of the proposed changes. Based on the available statistical facts and previous research findings, the adoption and implementation of the most effective changes and change intervention in modern institutions and profit making organisations is the most debated issue among business executives. Different levels and forms of complexity in contemporary local and global market always accompany changes in modern business entity and other profit-making organisation. Changes as well vary significant and in extent from transformational change to nominal change in modern business entities. ... ration or transformation in organization’s operations, activities, and managements undertaken in a company to advance its efficiency and productivity. In most cases, changes in any organisation are executed to comply with market dynamic, complexity and technological changes in local and global market. In most cases, economic activities produce benefits and costs that are spread over to all parties in the economic sector. These benefits and costs are described as externalities that have a very essential role in shaping changes and changing activities and operations in any organization Wellard Rural Exports Pty Ltd capitalises on sale and production of sheep and goat products in local and global market. However, despite its popularity in Australian local and global market, Wellard Rural Exports Pty Ltd was forced by modern technological developments and market complexity to introduce and institute various policies and changes that were aimed at advancing their short term and lon g-term productivity and profitability. In the last two decades, Wellard Rural Exports Pty Ltd has encountered consistent market competition from local and global competitors. To some extent, the increased markets competition and complexity have significantly affected its efficiency and productivity. To counter the ever-increasing challenges in local and global market, the company have instituted very effective internal and external operation and management changes and change intervention. Some of the changes instituted in Wellard Rural Exports Pty Ltd are aimed at holistically addressing emerging human process issues, structural and technological issues, strategic complications as well as human resource challenges. In an effort to ensure that the proposed changes are fully implemented and

Monday, February 3, 2020

Personal Finance Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 1

Personal Finance - Essay Example The raising of the state pension age to 68 by 2048 will generally make individuals look for other income and pension alternatives which will sustain them since the current retirement age is 65. Thus, for the three years after the retirement, they will need to find a way in order to finance the lifestyle that they choose. In this case, it is expected that individuals will be opting to compensate their state pension by occupational and personal pension in order to bridge the gap. Personal pensions are more likely noting the fact that the package of benefits under this scheme is based on the discretion of individuals. Other people can also opt to find employment even after the retirement age. This is especially true noting the fact that there are some individuals who augment their pensions by retaining their jobs. Having an employment before the retirement is the most probable action that individuals will take especially those who cannot afford to purchase additional pension scheme. Inc reasing the age at which the pension plan will be received also means that the state will be paying pensioners three years less than what is previously practiced. For pensioners this can mean that lower priced packages will be made available since the expected payment time is now shorter. The establishment of a low-cost pension scheme which is coupled with automatic enrolment will allow more individuals to avail of these packages.

Sunday, January 26, 2020

Mechanisms and Effects of Plant Hormones in Organogenesis

Mechanisms and Effects of Plant Hormones in Organogenesis Abstract Plant tissue culture plays important roles in agriculture field by improving the production and quality of crops using recombinant DNA technology. The mechanisms and effects of plant hormones in promoting organogenesis in different types of plants are only partially understood. Using petunia leaves and carrot, the effects of auxin and cytokinin were investigated by carrying out organogenesis. The leaves and carrots were placed in NAA, kinetin and BAP in few combinations of different ratio for 5 weeks and were observed for any growth of roots and shoots. The results showed that petunia leaves and carrot slices placed in high NAA formed roots but no shoots were formed while only callus and shoots were formed for those in high kinetin or BAP. The petunia leaves in BAP also formed shoots while no shoots were found for those placed in kinetin. This indicated that NAA promotes root formation while kinetin and BAP stimulates shoot emergence and balanced composition of auxin and cytokinin wi ll initiate both roots and shoots formation. Also, BAP was found to be more effective in promoting shoot formation as compared to kinetin. Further research has to be carried out using different auxin and cytokinin on more plant species with longer period of time. Keywords: Plant tissue culture, Auxin, Cytokinin, NAA, BAP, kinetin, petunia leaves, carrot, roots, shoots Introduction: Plant tissue culture is a set of laboratory procedures that involve in-vitro growing of plant cells, tissues and organs using the nutrient medium in sterile conditions (Chawla, 2009). Plant tissue culture plays important roles in crop improvement as it improves the quality of plants by exploiting the genetic information of the plants through genetic engineering (Brown Thorpe, 1995). Advantageous traits can also be screened and inserted to the plants with this method to make the plants resistant to herbicide and pesticide and even more tolerant to the harsh environment. This in turn increases the production of crops with lesser input of cost and energy. Besides that, plant tissue culture also plays important roles in biodiversity conservation. This is because with recombinant DNA technology, endangered species of plants can be cloned and prevented from extinction. It also helps in studying the plant evolution as it allows the genetic relationship of distantly related species to be id entified. According to Thiel et al. (2008), plant hormones are largely involved in influencing the cellular differentiation in plant tissue culture. They are organic compounds that regulate the growth and development of target cells. There are five main types of plant hormones which are the auxin, cytokinin, gibberellins, abscisic acid and ethylene. Auxin is the hormone that causes the plants to carry out cell division and elongation (Chawla, 2009). It also involves in differentiation of callus which causes the emergence of roots first meanwhile inhibiting shoot formation. It is found to inhibit the abscisic acid activities but stimulate the synthesis of ethylene. In contrast, cytokinin promotes shoot formation but suppress the formation of roots (Chawla, 2009). Gibberellins involves in the elongation or regeneration of existing meristems. Besides that, abscisic acid influences the embryogenesis but suppresses growth. In seeds, abscisic acid often plays roles in retaining the seeds in dormancy . Ethylene is a gaseous chemical produced by amino acid and diffuses in the air to promote fruits ripening and abscission (Chawla, 2009). In this experiment, the carrot and petunia leaves were excised from the explants and were cultivated with plant tissue culture by carrying out organogenic differentiation in the MS media containing auxin (NAA) and cytokinin (kinetin or BAP). The purpose of this experiment is to investigate the effects of auxin and cytokinin in different concentrations ratios on the organogenesis of petunia leaves and carrots. The differences between kinetin and BAP on the growth of petunia leaves and carrots were also studied and compared. Materials and methods: In this experiment, two different types of plants were used which are the petunia leaves and carrots. For the petunia leaves, 18 robust and healthy leaves were excised using the sterilized forceps and scalpel. These leaves were soaked in the 10% (v/v) sodium hypochlorite for not more than 5 minutes and were rinsed thrice with sterile water in a laminar flow cabinet. Meanwhile, 8 petri dishes containing the Murashige-Skoog (MS) media for tissue culture supplemented with different combination of cytokinin and auxin concentration which were the NAA: Kinetin and NAA: BAP with ratio 2:0, 0.5:1, 1:0.5 and 0:2 respectively were labeled. Besides that, a control petri dish with MS media without supplement of any plant hormones was also set up. For each of these 9 petri dishes, 2 petunia leaves were placed with the abaxial surface in contact with the MS media. The procedure was repeated with carrots slices which were cut from the carrot with sterilized forceps and scalpel. 3 carrot slices were placed on each of the petri dishes. The effects of the plant hormones on the petunia leaves and carrot slices were checked every three days for 5 weeks and the results were recorded. Any leaves or carrot slices contaminated with fungi were eliminated by transferring the uncontaminated leaves to the new petri dish MS media during the experiment. Discussion: From the result, it was shown that all the petunia leaves and carrot slices in all petri dish with NAA, kinetin or BAP formed callus. As proposed by Che et al. (2006), when the explants are transferred to culture media, plant hormones such as auxin and cytokinin will initiate callus formation. This shows that the NAA, kinetin and BAP have caused the leaves or carrot slices to differentiate into callus. As for the control petri dish without auxin and cytokinin, there should not have any callus, roots or shoots formed as plant hormones are needed in order to have callus formed from cell differentiation. The petunia leaves have no callus and roots but shoots were formed while the carrot slices form callus but not roots and shoots. This may due to the contamination of plants hormones during the excision and transferring of leaves to the MS media as the forceps and scalpel may not be sterilized properly. Roots were formed on the petunia leaves in 2:0 NAA and kinetin and 2:0 NAA and BAP. This appeared to be the same for the carrot slices in 2:0 NAA and kinetin and 2:0 NAA and BAP as there were also roots formed. This is due to the high level of auxin which stimulates the transcription of auxin-responsive gene to promote root formation from the callus (Moubayidin et al., 2009). However, there was no shoot formed on all these leaves and carrot slices. This may due to the reason that the formation of shoot requires cytokinin and this hormone was absent. Hence, no shoots were formed. Also, the high level of auxin will suppress the shoot formation of the callus (Shimizu-sato et al., 2009). The petunia leaves in 1:0.5 NAA and BAP formed shoots and roots. The auxin induces the formation of roots while the cytokinin induces the formation of shoots. However, the petunia leaves in 1:0.5 NAA and kinetin did not form shoots and roots. This is because BAP is more effective than kinetin in initiating shoot formation as it is the most active form of cytokinin (Khandel et al., 2011). Similarly, the carrot slices in 1:0.5 NAA and kinetin and 1:0.5 NAA and BAP did not form shoot and roots. According to Moubayidin et al. (2009), only balanced composition of auxin and cytokinin will causes the explants to form roots and shoots. Since the ratio of auxin and cytokinin used was 1:0.5 at which the concentration of cytokinin was lesser, the absence of shoots may due to low concentration of cytokinin which is insufficient to induce the formation of shoot on the leaves. Also, the presence of cytokinin which suppresses the differentiation in root meristematic cells may also inhibit the root from emerging (Moubayidin et al., 2009). The time taken for the experiment is also one of the reasons as the time may not be enough to see the shoot and root formation. As for the 0.5:1 NAA and kinetin, roots were found to form on the petunia leaves and carrot leaves in respectively as auxin which induces root formation was present. However, the leaves and carrot slices in 0.5:1 NAA and BAP did not have roots formation. Besides that, shoots were also formed on the petunia leaves placed on 0.5:1 NAA and BAP but this did not appear to be the same for leaves in 0.5:1 NAA and kinetin. As stated by Chawla (2009), cytokinin promotes the cell division and elongation of shoots. As compared to the leaves in 0.5:1 NAA and kinetin at which no shoots are formed, it can be seen that BAP than the kinetin is better in inducing shoot formation (Buah et al., 2010). The carrot slices in 0.5:1 NAA and kinetin or BAP did not form shoot. One possible reason for the absence of roots and shoot on petunia leaves and carrot slices is that there was not sufficient time for the shoot and root formation to be observed and longer time is required. It can also be seen that only the petunia leaves in 0:2 NAA and BAP showed the emergence of shoot. This indicated that cytokinin in the form of BAP acts in stimulating the cell division and differentiation to form shoot. The absence of shoots for the petunia leaves in 0:2 NAA and kinetin showed that kinetin is weaker in initiating shoot formation as compared to BAP. The rest of the petunia leaves and carrot slices in 2:0 NAA and kinetin and 2:0 NAA and BAP did not have shoots. This is because the time taken for the observation of the leaves and carrot was too short and the shoots were yet to emerge. All the leaves and carrot slices in 0:2 auxin to cytokinin did not have roots as NAA was not added to the media to promote root initiation and elongation. In this experiment, carrot slices and petunia leaves were used to study the effects of auxin and cytokinin. This was to allow comparisons of effectiveness of tissue culture using different types of explants to be done. As stated by Akin-Idowu et al. (2009), carrot is the root of a plant with actively-dividing meristematic cells and it provides advantages to successful tissue culture with higher mass of differentiated cells. Petunia leaves on the other hand contain less actively-dividing cells. Thus, the callus, root and shoot formation of carrot slices should be more as compared to that of petunia leaves. One of the leaves was removed in petri dish with 1:0.5 and 0:2 NAA and kinetin respectively. This is because the leaves were found to be infected with micro-organisms such as fungi due to contamination. This may cause the petunia leaves to die off, leading to unnoticeable effects of the kinetin and NAA on the growth of the leaves. According to Odutayo et al. (2007), the presence of microbes in the plant tissue culture retards shoots and roots formation. Thus, in order to get accurate results, the contaminated leaves were removed to prevent the spreading of the microbes to the other leaf on the petri dishes. The contamination of the tissues culture may due to insufficient sterilization of the forceps and scalpels used. Also, the petri dishes containing the MS media with the leaves may also not fully enclose which creates passage for the microbes to enter. Conclusion: In conclusion, high amount of NAA promotes root formation while inhibiting shoot formation. On the other hand, kinetin or BAP in high concentration initiates shoot formation but suppressing root formation. The absence of NAA causes no roots to be formed while the absence of kinetin or BAP causes no formation of shoots. The absence of roots on leaves or carrot slices with NAA or absence of shoot on leaves and carrot slices with kinetin or BAP may due to the reason that insufficient time was given to observe the plants and the roots and shoots were yet to emerge. BAP is more effective in stimulating the emergence of shoot as compared to kinetin as it is the most active cytokinin. Also, carrot is more effective than petunia leaves in tissue culture as it contains actively dicing meristematic cells.

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Morocco: Economy and Trade

King Mohammed VI realized the need and potential in energy and the impact that it would have upon the government and the presiding society.   The process of redeveloping the country has taken over five years as the eco-system has suffered and the unemployment rate are holding at 20 percent of the population in the cities.   The US -North African Economic Partnership is only half of the global integration as the Morocco- EU Association Agreement has been developing since March of 2000.   The interglobal dependency is attending to the needs of 1) telecommunications/ information systems 2) electric power system 3) environmental technology 4) water and waste water treatment and 5) tourism.   These primary needs will develop the economy that had originate in the farms and crops that include wheat, feed grain, and crude vegetable oil. The restrictions upon the businesses of imports and exports has been used to develop the nations as quickly as possible. The restriction of any imports is nominal as the economy relies on the developing trade from the US and the EU.   The control that is imposed by their government has been reduced to alleviate any more problems from credit and foreign exchange allocution; reduce trade barrier; increase monitoring of governmental spending; and the introduction of new corporations. The previous stance as foreign trade has reduced by adhering to the Morocco’s World Trade Organization.   The public acceptance of the American goods and services as the time span for development will begin to change their society.   The   more products that are from the United States will allow great accessibility and the affect that it will have upon the economy.   Simplify the process by reducing the tariff and having the inspections   simpler.   Many companies such as Coco- Cola, Fruit of the Loom, Johnson and Johnson, and Pfizer will encourage the economy and have a positive result upon the society. Works Cited â€Å"Economy of Morocco† http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economy_of_Morocco (18 March 2008). U.S. Embassy Rabut. â€Å"US Department of State FY 2001 Country commercial Guide: Morocco† < www.state.gov/about_state/business/com_guides> (July 2000). U.S. Department of State. â€Å"Executive Sumary of the Country Commercial Guide for Morocco Fiscal Year 20

Friday, January 10, 2020

Ethics Business Exam Essay

Define â€Å"ethics† as described in our textbook: Ethics refers to our efforts to figure out what we should do and how we should live. It involves the challenge of figuring out how to justify our behavior both to ourselves and others. 3 Who are the most important stakeholders in the following examples in our textbook? 1. Tylenol : Doctors, nurses, mothers, fathers and children. 2. Novo Nordisk : People with diabetes 3. GE Healthcare in India: Heath care providers 4. Merck: Members of society and to provide good to people in need around the world. . An employee is accused of altering a company’s financial ledgers. Upon questioning, the employee exclaims that he was only following the supervisor’s orders. The employee is using which justification for his unethical behavior? Distancing from responsibility 5. What are the 3 ways to avoid rationalizations? First the generalizability test; which states to make similar decision when confronted with similar issues. Next the publicity test; this test aims to make sure one can defend their reason, simply is it just and can it be defended. The last test is the reversibility test; this suggests putting one in another’s shoes. Do onto others as you would have done to you. 6. What are the 3 Decision Guidelines named in the textbook? 1. Stranded to conduct 2. From virtue ethics to character and relationships 3. Purposes and consequences 9. What are the 3 Levels of the Stakeholder Framework? 1. Value proposition of the organization 2. Principles of stakeholder cooperation 3. Respect for societal standers of conduct. 10. In the case study about Merck, for what disease were they asked to provide medication? River blindness 1. What are Kohlberg’s 6 Stages of Moral Development? 1. Pre-convectional – Punishment and obedience – individual instrument purpose and exchange. 2. Convectional – mutual Interpersonal expectations and relationships conformity – law and order orientation 3. Post- convectional – prior rights Social contact, utility – universal ethical principles 14. Tr ue or False: According to the Stakeholder Framework, the concerns of Shareholders are not important. False: But they should have a solid and defensible reason when they choose not to address a stakeholder 15. True or False: Bribery is acceptable when engaging in business in another country where it is commonly practiced. False: bribery is an unacceptable practice 16. Name 4 of DeGeorge’s 10 Principles for Cross Cultural Management. 1. Do no intentional harm. 2. Produce more good than harm for host. 3. Contribute to host development. 4. Respect human rights of employees. 17. In the video of ‘The Office†, what are 5 ethical issues portrayed? 1) Getting discount on paper for sexual acts. 2) Upper level management overlooked reason for discount paper 3) Stealing company time. ) Office manager blew off ethics training program. 5) Giving immunity and revoking it after the meeting is an ethics issue. 18. True or False: Enron was in the ice cream cone business. False: they sold energy. 19. What is the difference between primary and secondary stakeholders? Primary stakeholders are people and groups most affected by the outcome of the business actions. Value chain and definitiona l stakeholders. Secondary stakeholders are individuals or groups not directly affected by the outcome of business operations. Instrumental stakeholders.